Posts Tagged ‘indianscience’

Intoduction of Islamic science from various sorces

September 2, 2008

In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under Islamic civilization between the 8th and

15th centuries, during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. It is also known as Arabic science since the majority of

texts during this period were written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization. Despite these terms, not all

scientists during this period were Muslim or Arab, as there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists (most notably

Persians), as well as some non-Muslim scientists, who contributed to scientific studies in the Islamic world.

A

Youngest stamp collector in the world from SECUNDERABAD south india AP.

Youngest stamp collector in the world from SECUNDERABAD south india AP.Admiral PiriREIS map w south american continents,with antarctica

ccording to many historians, science in Islamic civilization flourished until the 14th century AD. At least some scholars

blame this on the “rise of a clerical faction which froze this same science and withered its progress.” Examples of conflicts

with prevailing interpretations of Islam and science – or at least the fruits of science – thereafter include the demolition

of Taqi al-Din’s great Istanbul observatory of al-Din in Galata, “comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist

personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe.” But while Brahe’s observatory “opened

the way to a vast new development of astronomical science,” Taqi al-Din’s was demolished by a squad of Janissaries, “by order

of the sultan, on the recommendation of the Chief Mufti,” sometime after 1577 AD.

It is believed that it was the empirical attitude of the Qur’an and Sunnah which inspired medieval Muslim scientists, in

particular Alhazen (965-1037),to develop the scientific method. It is also known that certain advances made by medieval

Muslim astronomers and mathematicians was motivated by problems presented in Islamic scripture, such as Al-Khwarizmi’s (c.

780-850) development of algebra in order to solve the Islamic inheritance laws,[30] and developments in astronomy, spherical

geometry and spherical trigonometry in order to determine the direction of the Qibla, the times of Salah prayers, and the

dates of the Islamic calendar.

Other such examples include Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), who discovered the pulmonary circulation in 1242 and used his discovery

as evidence for the orthodox Islamic doctrine of bodily resurrection. Ibn al-Nafis also used Islamic scripture as

justification for his rejection of wine as self-medication. Ali Kuşçu’s (1403-1474) support for the Earth’s rotation and his

rejection of Aristotelian cosmology (which advocates a stationery Earth) was also motivated by religious opposition to

Aristotle by orthodox Islamic theologians such as Al-Ghazali.Criticisms against alchemy and astrology were also motivated by

religion, such as the views of astrologers conflicting with orthodox Islam.

1. Some rejected modern science as corrupt foreign thought, considering it incompatible with Islamic teachings, and in

their view, the only remedy for the stagnancy of Islamic societies would be the strict following of Islamic teachings.[38]
2. Other thinkers in the Muslim world saw science as the only source of real enlightenment and advocated the complete

adoption of modern science. In their view, the only remedy for the stagnation of Muslim societies would be the mastery of

modern science and the replacement of the religious worldview by the scientific worldview.
3. The majority of faithful Muslim scientists tried to adapt Islam to the findings of modern science; they can be

categorized in the following subgroups: (a) Some Muslim thinkers attempted to justify modern science on religious grounds.

Their motivation was to encourage Muslim societies to acquire modern knowledge and to safeguard their societies from the

criticism of Orientalists and Muslim intellectuals. (b) Others tried to show that all important scientific discoveries had

been predicted in the Qur’an and Islamic tradition and appealed to modern science to explain various aspects of faith. (c)

Yet other scholars advocated a re-interpretation of Islam. In their view, one must try to construct a new theology that can

establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science. The Indian scholar, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, sought a theology of

nature through which one could re-interpret the basic principles of Islam in the light of modern science. (d) Then there were

some Muslim scholars who believed that empirical science had reached the same conclusions that prophets had been advocating

several thousand years ago. The revelation had only the privilege of prophecy.
4. Finally, some Muslim philosophers separated the findings of modern science from its philosophical attachments. Thus,

while they praised the attempts of Western scientists for the discovery of the secrets of nature, they warned against various

empiricist and materialistic interpretations of scientific findings. Scientific knowledge can reveal certain aspects of the

physical world, but it should not be identified with the alpha and omega of knowledge. Rather, it has to be integrated into a

metaphysical framework—consistent with the Muslim worldview—in which higher levels of knowledge are recognized and the role

of science in bringing us closer to God is fulfilled.

Islam and the development of science

Whether Islamic culture has promoted or hindered scientific advancement is disputed. Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb argue that

since “Islam appointed” Muslims “as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences,”[39]

science cannot but prosper in a society of true Muslims. Many “classical and modern [sources] agree that the Qur’an condones,

even encourages the acquisition of science and scientific knowledge, and urges humans to reflect on the natural phenomena as

signs of God’s creation.” Some scientific instruments produced in classical times in the Islamic world were inscribed with

Qur’anic citations. Many Muslims agree that doing science is an act of religious merit, even a collective duty of the Muslim

community

Others say traditional interpretations of Islam are not compatible with the development of science. Author Rodney Stark,

explains Islam’s lag behind the West in scientific advancement after (roughly) 1500 AD to opposition by traditional ulema to

efforts to formulate systematic explanation of natural phenomenon with “natural laws.” They believed such laws were

blasphemous because they limit “Allah’s freedom to act” as He wishes. This principle was enshired in aya 14:4: “Allah sendeth

whom He will astray, and guideth whom He will,” which (they believed) applied to all of creation not just humanity.

In the early twentieth century ulema forbade the learning of foreign languages and dissection of human bodies in the medical

school in Iran. The ulama at the Islamic university of Al-Azhar in Cairo taught the Ptolemaic astronomical system (in

which the sun circles the earth) until compelled to adopt the Copernican system by the Egyptian government in 1961.

In recent years, the lagging of the Muslim world in science is manifest in the disproportionately small amount of scientific

output as measured by citations of articles published in internationally circulating science journals, annual expenditures on

research and development, and numbers of research scientists and engineers.[44] Skepticism of science among some Muslims is

reflected in issues such as resistance in Muslim northern Nigeria to polio inoculation, which some believe is “an imaginary

thing created in the West or it is a ploy to get us to submit to this evil agenda.”

Qur’an and Science

The belief that Qur’an had prophesied scientific theories and discoveries has become a strong and wide-spread belief in the

contemporary Islamic world; these prophecies are often provided as a proof of the divine origin of the Qur’an.

The scientific facts claimed to be in the Qur’an exist in different subjects, including creation, astronomy, the animal and

vegetables kingdom, and human reproduction.

“a time is fixed for every prophecy; you will come to know in time” ([Qur’an 6:67]). Islamic scholar Zaghloul El-Naggar

thinks that this verse refers to the scientific facts in the Qur’an that would be discovered by the world in modern time,

centuries after the revelation.

This believe is, however, arguable in the Muslim world, while some support it, other Muslim scholars oppose the believe,

claiming that the Qur’an is not a book of science; al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical

period, assigned to the Qur’an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur’an “does not interfere in the

business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science.”[46] These scholars argued for the possibility of multiple

scientific explanation of the natural phenomena, and refused to subordinate the Qur’an to an ever-changing science.[46]

Specific science-related issues in the Quran and the Hadith

Fossils of ancient humans

Main article: Islamic creationism

Here are three basic verses in Qur’an which are related to human creation ([Qur’an 3:59], [Qur’an 4:1], [Qur’an 32:7])

According to the first two verses, Adam and Eve were directly created by God from clay. They did not descend from any other

species as proposed by Charles Darwin. The rest of mankind is the progeny of Adam and Eve. The third verse implies that there

were three stages in their creation, and can be interpreted in two ways

* First possibility:
o Adam and Eve were created from clay
o They subsequently developed the ability to reproduce at a later age
o Finally, after some more time elapsed, they entered the third phase in which they were perfected both physically

and spiritually, and received the divine spirit from God.
* Second possibility: All these three phases did not pass on the first humans created, rather each of the phases lasted

for many years during which many life forms were created from clay having the characteristic of their respective periods

together with that of the previous one.
o Human forms were initially directly created from clay because they did not have the ability to reproduce. This

first stage may have lasted for millions of years, and in it, the humans forms’ physical forms after passing through various

stages culminated in the homo sapiens of today. Millions of species may have been created from clay like this. Among them,

many went extinct and the others lived to enter the second phase, the first of which were Adam and Eve.
o The human forms now had the ability to reproduce and direct creation was no longer required. Adam and Eve were

the first directly created pair from clay which had this ability to reproduce. In the second phase, except Adam and Eve all

other pairs who had the ability to reproduce pairs were not perfected and later died away.
o It was this very pair which entered the third phase and was perfected physically so that it could receive the

divine spirit from the God and be blessed with the faculties of sense and reason as is specified by the last part of the

verse.

Under the second interpretation, the fossils which we find today belong to the millions of people created from clay in the

first and second phases.
Conception and inherited characteristics

The most prominent of the ancient Greek thinkers who wrote on medicine were Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen. Hippocrates

and Galen, in contrast with Aristotle, wrote that the contribution of females to children is equal to that of males, and the

vehicle for it is a substance similar to the semen of males.[48] Basim Musallam writes that the ideas of these men were

widespread through the pre-modern Middle East: “Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen were as much a part of Middle Eastern

Arabic culture as anything else in it.”[48] The sayings in the Quran and those attributed to Muhammad in the Hadith

influenced generations of Muslim scientists by siding with Galen and Hippocrates. Basim Musallam writes: “… the statements

about parental contribution to generation in the hadith paralleled the Hippocratic writings, and the view of fetal

development in the Quran agreed in detail with Galen’s scientific writings.”[48] He reports that the highly influential

medieval Hanbali scholar Ibn Qayyim, in his book Kitab al-tibyan fi aqsam al-qur’an, cites the following statement of the

prophet from the Sahih Muslim:
“ The male semen is white and the female semen is yellowish. When the two meet and the male semen overpowers the female

semen, it will be male; when the female semen overpowers the male semen, it will be female.

Ibn Qayyim also quotes a different hadith from the same collection, which is quoted by other Muslim authors as well. Having

been asked the question “from what is man created,” the Prophet replies:
“ He is created of both, the semen of the man and the semen of the woman. The man’s semen is thick and forms the bones

and the tendons. The woman’s semen is fine and forms the flesh and blood.more scientific information as in the lines of tagged items will follow,

Next article will on of Admiral PiriREIS map with north and south american continents,also with antarctica continent without icecap which was mapped in last 50 years was given in an map of 1300AD map ,before COLUMBUS, Is there any answer from anyone or any scientitific circle in all the faculties of SCIENCES around the world